What is Scaffolding , 6 Important types,Components of Scaffolding & Causes and prevention in Scaffolding.

What is Scaffolding, types of Scaffolding, Components of Scaffolding, Types of

bracing, types of clamps, types of safety net.

 

Do you want to know What is Scaffolding and about its types ,So you are landing on right

page ,here we will discuss  everything about Scaffolding

 

What is Scaffolding
What is Scaffolding

What is Scaffolding

 

Scaffolding is a provisional or temporary elevated protective structure or  working platform for construction workers made by steel or aluminum & tested by authorized person as per IS Code – 3696. used for holding workers and materials during the erection, repair or decoration of a building or to support construction activities like construction of building, maintenance ,repair work of building or bridges and other such structures.

 

In addition to construction activities, scaffolding also function as a platform for construction workers to perform construction tasks. Scaffolding is very important as far as the safety is concerned as improper scaffolding may lead to death or serious injury to construction worker.

 

What is Scaffolding Components

 

What is Scaffolding
What is Scaffolding

 

These are the following components of Scaffolding :-

 

  • Base plate

 

  • Sole plate

 

  • Standards

 

  • Ledger

 

  • Transoms

 

  • Bracing

 

  • Couplers

 

  • Working platform

 

  • Toe board

 

  • Guard rails

 

  • Mid rails

 

  • Top Rails

 

  • Ladder

 

  • Scaffold plank

 

  • False upright

 

  • Self closing drop bar etc.

 

1). Sill

 

It is also known by plank.It is a wooden plank which bears total load of scaffolding and used to provide a solid base for scaffolding and prevent from collapse and displacement of scaffolding in soil.

 

What is Scaffolding
What is Scaffolding

 2). Base Plate

 

Base plate is used for the base of scaffolding and the top of wooden plank to prevent scaffolding insertion in wooden plank.

 

What is Scaffolding
What is Scaffolding

 

3). Post or Standards

 

This is the main part of scaffolding which bears the total load of Scaffolding.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

4). Diagonal Braces

 

It is used to stabilization of scaffolding and prevent displacement. It gives extra strength to scaffolding.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

5). Cross Bracing

 

It is also used for the balance of scaffolding.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

6). Toe Board

 

It is the top base of working platform used to keep the construction materials safe.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

7). Guard Rail

 

It is also known as top rail. It is used to support and ensure all workers and manpower’s work safely and prevent from falling down. It is used as a barricading.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

8). Mid Rail

 

It is also used for the safety of workers whose working in sitting position.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

9). Planking

 

It may be wooden or metal platform for labors and workers.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

10). Coupling

 

Coupling is used for post or standard joints.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

What is Scaffolding Types 

 

There are many types of scaffolding used for different work but the mostly 10 types of

scaffolding are mainly used for construction work

 

1). Fixed Scaffolding.

 

2). Rolling Scaffolding.

 

3). Suspended Scaffolding.

 

4). Aerial lift scaffolding in Bromley.

 

5). Single Scaffolding or Bricklayers Scaffolding.

 

6). Double Scaffolding or Mason’s Scaffolding.

 

7). Cantilever or needle Scaffolding.

 

8). Trestle Scaffolding.

 

9).  Steel Scaffolding

 

10). Patented Scaffolding

 

1). Fixed Scaffolding

 

The main and most important scaffolding is fixed scaffolding which is used mostly in building construction.It is mainly used for heavy and long term work.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

2). Rolling Scaffolding

 

When a set of wheels is fitted to the scaffolding structures it becomes a rolling scaffolding. This makes the scaffolding is to be able, to be shifted back and forth to adjust the scaffolding structures. It is also known as mobile scaffolding because it is movable scaffolding and mainly used for light construction work like cleaning of glass of a building, doors and windows setting, and minor patches or painting work etc.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

3). Suspended Scaffolding

 

These scaffolding are suspended from a roof when support to the ground is not at all possible. This is mainly used for the cleaning of windows of high rise building.This is very light type of scaffolding & can be used only for the maintenance works such as painting, whitewashing, dis tempering etc.

 

The working platform is suspended from the roofs by means of ropes , wires or chain & arrangement are made such that the platform can be raised or lowered.

 

This type of scaffolding does not create any obstruction on the ground & it is the most effective as its always provides the optimum level of working.

 

4). Aerial lift scaffolding in Bromley

 

Aerial lifts are wonderful scaffolding that are quite flexible in nature. They can take a person and materials to various levels of a building. They are quite easy to operate and maintain. It is an advance scaffolding and fully mechanical automatic adjustable up and down.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

5). Single Scaffolding or Bricklayers Scaffolding

 

This is the most common type of Scaffolding is widely used in the construction of brickwork.It consist of a single row of standard placed at a distance of about 1.20 meter from the wall.The distance between the successive standard is about 2 m to 2.50 meter .The ledger are then fixed to the standards at a vertical distance of about 1.20 meter to 1.80 meter.The put logs, with one end on the ledgers the other end on the wall, are then placed at a horizontal distance of about 1.20 meter to 1.80 meter.The braces , guard rails & toe board are fixed as shown in fig.This type of scaffolding is also known as Put log Scaffolding. 

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

6). Double Scaffolding or Mason’s Scaffolding

 

a). This scaffolding is stronger than the single scaffolding & it is used in the construction of stone work.

 

b).  The framework is similar to the single scaffolding except that two rows of standard are provided.

 

c). The distance between the face of the wall & the first row of standard is about 200 mm to 300 mm & the distance between the rows is about one meter.

 

d). The Rakers and cross braces may be provided to make the scaffolding more strong as shown in fig.

 

e). This type is also sometimes known as independent Scaffolding.

 

7). Cantilever or needle Scaffolding

 

In this type of Scaffolding, the general framework may be of single scaffolding type or of double scaffolding type.

 

i). But the standard are supported by a series of needles or ties which are taken out at floor levels or through opening or through holes kept in the masonry.

 

ii). Fig. Shows a cantilever scaffolding of put log type. The needles are supported at the floor levels & strutted through projections such as sills, cornices, string, courses etc.

 

iii). The inner end of the needle projects sufficiently inside & is well strutted between the floor as shown.

 

This type of scaffolding is useful under the following circumstances:-

 

a). The proper hard guard is not available for the standard to rest.

 

b). It is desired to keep the road or pavement near the face of wall, clear of obstruction caused by the scaffolding.

 

c). The construction work is to be carried out for upper parts of a multi storied building.

 

8). Trestle Scaffolding

 

In this type of scaffolding, the working platform is supported on movable contrivances such as ladders, tripods etc.mounted on wheels.

 

This type of scaffolding is useful for minor repairs or painting work inside the rooms the maximum height up to which this type of scaffolding can be adopted is about 5 m from the supporting surface.

 

9). Steel Scaffolding

 

In the place of timber, the steel tubes can be effectively used for the scaffolding work.

The diameter of the tubes is about 40 mm to 50 mm & the thickness is about 5 mm.

The tubes are available in standard length with special couplings & set & crows.

 

The advantages of steel scaffolding are manifold :-

 

The scaffolding can be used up to any height, it is strong & more durable, it can be easily erected & dismantled ; it posses high scrap value & it is resistant to fire.

 

However the disadvantages are that the initial cost is high, it requires skilled labors & it is also requires periodical painting.

 

10). Patented Scaffolding

 

Now-a-days the various patented Scaffolding made of steel, with special types of coupling & frames are available.

 

Usually the working platform is supported on a bracket which can be adjusted to any suitable height.

 

Types of Bracing

 

There are four types of bracing are following:-

 

1). Cross Bracing.

 

2). Knee Bracing.

 

3). Sway Bracing.

 

4). Plane Bracing.

 

What is Scaffolding Types Of Clamps/ Couplers

 

There are six types of  clamps are following:-

 

1). Right angle (Fixed Clamp)

 

A carbon steel fittings use to connect two tubes at right angle with height tensile bolts. Designed ,manufactured and tested under IS 1570.

 

Load Bearing Capacity/Safe work load (S W L) is 610 kg or 6.3 to 9.3 KN.

 

2). Swivel Coupler ( Chalu Clamp)

 

A carbon steel fittings with high tensile bolts. used to connect tubes at any angle which rotates one point at 360 degree. The safe working load is half of right angle couplers. tested and manufactured under IS – 1570 Standard.

 

Bearing Capacity/Safe work load (S W L) is 610 kg

 

3). Sleeve Coupler (Box Clamp)

 

Bearing Capacity/Safe work load (S W L) is 550 kg

 

4). Put log Coupler

 

These are used to connect only transoms to ledger.Only suitable for light duty known as non bearing load coupler.

 

5). Ladder Clamp

 

Bearing Capacity/Safe work load (S W L) is 550 kg

 

6). Plank Coupler ( Jaali Clamp)

 

Bearing Capacity/Safe work load (S W L) is 565 kg

 

7). Beam Clamp

 

Bearing Capacity/Safe work load (S W L) is 3000 kg.

 

Types Of Safety Net

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

There are two types of safety net used in construction

 

Man and Materials Net.

 

a). Man ( Hole diameter 100 mm , Rope diameter 8 mm ).

 

b). Materials ( Hole diameter 25 mm , outline rope diameter 12 mm ).

 

What is Scaffolding Causes and Hazards 

 

1). Fall from height

 

2). Electrocution

 

3). Struck by falling tools/debris.

 

4).Collision of moving vehicles to scaffold.

 

5). Scaffold collapse.

 

6).Untrained workers, unauthorized entry.

 

7). Damaged hand tools un inspected hand tools.

 

 8). Un – compacted Soil.

 

9). Uneven Surface.

 

10). Excessive Load.

 

11). Buckling.

 

12). Improper Bracing.

 

13). Using Low Quality materials.

 

14). Un hardened Platform.

 

15). Monkey Climbing.

 

16). Environmental conditions.

 

1). Fall from height

 

Workers – ( caused by slipping, unsafe access and lack of fall protection).

 

Tools and materials

 

(Due to lack of toe board, working in appreciate way.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

Prevention from fall from height

 

a). Avoid spillage of liquid mixtures(mixture of cement, paint etc.).

 

b). Provide safe ladder for safe access.

 

c). Provide top rail,mid rail and full body harness.

 

2). Electrocution(from overhead power lines),contact with overhead power lines.

 

What is Scaffolding  
What is Scaffolding

 

Precautions

 

a). Safe clearance should be maintained from energized overhead power lines.

 

b). Conduct inspection before erection of scaffold.

 

c). If possible switch off electricity.

 

3). Struck by falling tools/debris.

 

Precautions

 

Barricade the working area or provide hard hats.

 

4). Collision of moving vehicles to scaffold.

 

Precautions

 

Barricade the working area or provide safely sighing board

 

5). Scaffold collapse

 

Cause due to loose soil, excessive load, improper bracing, unfavorable weather conditions(wind, rain etc.).

 

Precautions

 

Avoid erection of scaffold on loose soil.

 

Avoid stacking of loads on scaffold.

 

Provide proper bracing.

 

6).Untrained workers, unauthorized entry (Hazards).

 

Prevention

 

1). Only inducted workers shall be deputed at the workplace.

 

2). Given toolbox talk to all workman.

 

3). Height work activity permits shall be taken before start work.

 

4). Required P P E used by workers.

 

5). Area shall be barricaded to prevent unauthorized entry.

 

6). Access & Edges should be clear.

 

7). Damaged hand tools uninspected hand tools ( Hazards).

 

Prevention :-

 

i). Avoid damaged hand tools for use.

 

ii). Inspected all tools at the time of entry to site and maintain record.

 

iii). Only inspected hand tools shall be use at site.

 

iv). Approved tools should be used.

 

What is Scaffolding Tag System :- Yellow, red , Green tag of Scaffolding

 

Before using the scaffold check the tag ( 7 days Validity ).

 

Green tag : we can use the scaffold.

 

Red Tag :- for not use.

 

Yellow Tag :- Use only for scaffolding erection work.

 

Points to be checked while green tagging erected scaffolding

 

1). Level and firmness of the ground.

 

2). Sole plate.

 

3). Base Plate.

 

4). Standards or vertical post.

 

5). Ledger.

 

6). Transoms.

 

7). Coupler.

 

8). Plank ( Boards).

 

9). Toe Boards.

 

10 ). Bracing.

 

11). guard Rails.

 

12). Mid Rails.

 

13). Out Riggers.

 

14). Ladders.

 

What is Scaffolding materials Prices  

 

S.No.

Item

Size

Specification

Weight (in Kg)

Price

1.

Standard

3 meter

2.5 meter

2 meter

1.5 meter

1 meter

0.5 meter

3 meter

2.5 meter

2 meter

1.5 meter

1 meter

6 cup / 500 c-c

5 cup / 500 c-c

4 cup / 500 c-c

3 cup / 500 c-c

2 cup / 500 c-c

1 cup / 500 c-c

3 cup / 1000 c-c

3 cup / 1000 c-c

2 cup / 1000 c-c

2 cup / 1000 c-c

1 cup / 1000 c-c

13.20

11.00

8.80

6.60

4.40

2.20

11.52

9.88

7.68

6

3.84

906

756

599

458

308

160

744

648

491

404

254

2.

Ledgers

3 meter

2.5 meter

2 meter

1.5 meter

1.2 meter

1 meter

0.75 mm

0.500 mm

Nil

10

8.48

6.86

5.18

4.28

3.61

2.80

1.98

579

491

410

310

259

227

184

140

3.

Base Jack

32 x 330

32 x 450

32 x 500

32 x 600

32 x 750

Nil

3.20

3.80

4.10

4.75

5.70

227

268

285

322

378

4.

Top/U-jack

32 x 330

32 x 450

32 x 500

32 x 600

32 x 750

Nil

3.30

3.90

4.20

4.85

5.80

198

232

248

280

326

5.

Base Plate

150 x 150 x 5

Nil

1

70

6.

Prop

2 x 2

2 x 3

3 x 3

Nil

18.2

21.2

26

1082

1194

1533

7.

Acro Span

3150 x 4850 mm

2450 x 4150 mm

Nil

43 kg

 

39 kg

2494

 

2263

8.

Jali

2000 x 450

 

2000 x 450

20 x 20 x 2

 

20 x 20 x 1.5

19.20

 

14.40

1140

 

886

             

 

Important points to be Remember

 

1). Distance between Gin wheel to platform is  750 mm.

 

2). Gap Except in between two plank is  50 mm.

 

3). Size of top board is  150 mm.

 

4). Size of sole plate is 300 x 300 x 6 mm.

 

5).  Size of base plate is 150 x 150 x 6 mm.

 

6). Toe Board 150 mm size and 6 “ height.

 

7). Guard Rails height 950 to 1200 mm.

 

8). Mid Rails height is 450 to 600 mm.

 

9). Ladder :- Ratio 4:1 or Degree 75*

 

So, I hope guys  now your all doubts will be clear about what is Scaffolding its types, components, hazards and prevention etc.

 

A Great thanks for your great attention towards this post

 

Good Bye & Take care

 

Happy learning 😛 

 

Also Read :-

 

TYPES OF BEAMS USED IN CONSTRUCTION

2 EASY METHODS OF DAMPNESS TREATMENT BY DR. FIXIT SUPER LATEX

6 IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ASPHALT AND BITUMEN,FIELD TEST OF BITUMEN | FIELD TEST OF ASPHALT

 

 

 

 

 

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