Types of Loads on Foundations & Building Structure


3 Important Types of Loads on Foundations – Building and Other Structure


Types of loads on foundation
Types of loads on foundation


3 Types of loads on foundation – Anything that is built with walls and roofs is termed as building and society requires the building for various activities,but before construction of a building you need to know  the loads which impact a lot on the buildings,


So today in this article we discuss in detail the 3 Important types of loads on foundation – Building and Other Structure.


3 Important types of loads on foundations


1). Dead Load


2). Live load


3). Wind load


1). Dead Load:-  


Types of Loads on Foundations & Building Structure


Dead load is 1st type of Loads on the Foundation, the load of the materials used for the various components Of a building such as walls, floors, roofs, etc. All permanent loads are thus included in that loads. Sometimes the provision for the future construction of a partition wall is made by allowing a dead load of 0.10 KN/m 2 of the floor area.


it should be seen that the dead load of partitions constructed in the future under this provision does not exceed the allowance made.


Table 1.2,


So the weights of some of the common materials used in the construction of a building. It should be noted that these weights are for solid materials and suitable allowance should be made for broken materials depending upon the percentage of voids. The weight of green timber is about 20 % to 50% more than the weight of the dry timer.


Table 1.2


Types of Loads on various materials


No. Description Weight







2 Asphalt 22.56
3 Bitumen 14.13
4 Brick 17.66
5 Brass 79.07
6 Cast -Iron 70.63
7 Chir Wood 5.00
8 Compacted Earth 21.39
9 Copper 84.27
10   Deal Wood  6.28
11 Dry River Sand 26.19
12 Glass 26.62
13 Granite 26.39
14 Gravel 17.27
15 Lead 111.44
16 Limestone 21.78
17 Marble 26.49
18 Mortar, lime 17.07
19 Plaster, Cement 20.40
20 Plaster, Lime 18.84
21 Portland Cement 14.42
22 Sal Wood 9.81
23 Sandstone 21.48
24 Steel 76.91
25 Teak Wood 6.57 to 8.14
26 Wrought Iron 75.34
  B kN/m3
1 Brick Masonry 18.84
2 Plain Concrete 18.84 to 23.54
 3  Reinforced Concrete  23.54
4 Lime Concrete 18.84
 5  Stone Masonry 24.53
  C kN/m3
1 Asbestos cement Sheet 0.17
2 Corrugated Galvanized Iron Sheet 0.98
3 Doors with Frames 0.38
4 Double Country tiles with battens 1.15
5 Floor Finish 0.57 to 0.86
6 Jack arch roofs 7.18
7 Mangalore tiles with battens 0.67
8 Window with Frame 0.28


So, these are the weight of various materials which impact on Types of Loads on Foundations – Building and Other Structure


2nd Types of Loads – Live Load:-


Types of Loads on Foundations & Building Structure
Types of Loads on Foundations & Building Structure


Live load is the 2nd Load on Foundation. This is the movable load on the floor and hence it is variable. It is also sometimes known as a Super-Imposed load. It includes a load of persons standing on a floor, articles of furniture, Weight of materials temporarily stored on a floor, weight of snow on a roof, etc.


For the purpose of design, the live load is converted into the equivalent dead load.


table 1.3 gives the values of equivalent dead load for floors of different types of buildings. Further, A percentage reduction is applied in the design of piers, Columns, walls, and foundations of a multi-story building as shown in table 1.4.


This reduction is not applied to factories, warehouses, garages, stores, etc which are designed for a live load less than 5 KN per m 2.



Table 1.3





Type Of Building

Minimum equivalent dead load on the floor

    Kg/m 2 k N/m 2
1 Residential buildings, hospital rooms, and wards, and hotel bedrooms. 250 2.50
2 Office buildings, churches, school buildings, art galleries, stairs in residential buildings, retail shops, and light garages. 400 4.00
3 Public buildings, assembly halls, dance halls, theaters, cinemas, restaurants, gymnasiums, stairs in public buildings cafes, and light workshops. 500 5.00

Heavy workshops, printing presses, and factories.

750 7.50
5 Warehouses, books stores, stationery stores, and heavy garages. 1000 10.00


Table 1.4





Position of Floor

No Reduction
1 Topmost Story No reduction
2 Next Story from Topmost Story 10
3 Next Story below 2 20
4 Next Story below 3 30
5 Next Story below 4 40
6 All Subsequent Story 50


The Roofs are also subjected to the live loads. The flat roofs of buildings likely to be used for incidental assembly should be designed for a minimum load of 400 kg/m 2 or 4 k N/m 2 or heavier if required.



The sloping and curved roofs should be designed for snow loads and rainwater loads. The actual loads due to snow will depend upon the shape of roofs and their capacity to retain the snow.


The rainwater load will depend on the shape of the roof, drainage system provided, Chances of water to accumulate, etc.


3rd Types of Loads – Wind Load


In the case of tall buildings, the effect due to wind should be considered. The exposed sides and roofs of such buildings are subjected to wind pressure and its effect is to reduce the pressure on the foundation on the windward side and to increase the pressure on the foundation on the leeward side. The slopes of the roofs on the windward direction are known as the windward slope while the slope of the other side of the wind direction is known as the leeward slope.


Following points should be noted in the construction……..


(i). The wind pressure will depend on the velocity of the wind, location of the structure, and various other local meteorological data. In absence of any other data, the following relationship may be adopted:


P  = kV2




P  = Wind pressure in kg/m 2

V   = Velocity of wind in km p.h.

K  = Coefficient whose value depends on various factors such as wind speed, the

the temperature of the air, the shape of the structure, etc.


The value of coefficient k has been taken as 0.006 by the NBC for the preparation of wind pressure maps. The reference to these maps should be made for a detailed study of wind load. It may be noted that these maps and the associate charts give the variation in wind pressure and height.


(ii). If the height of the building is less than twice its effective width and further if a building is sufficiently stiffened in addition by cross walls, floor slabs, etc. the wind pressure may be neglected.



(iii). If the amount of bearing pressure due to the wind only is less than 25 % of that due to dead loads and live loads, the wind pressure may be neglected in the design.


In the case where the ratio exceeds 25%,


the design of the foundation made in such a way that the bearing pressure due to combined effects of live loads, dead, and wind loads does not exceed the allowable bearing pressure by more than 25 percent.


(iv). The effect of wind pressure on a pitched roof depends on the angle of inclination and its value is worked out by referring to the relevant code of BIS.


(v). The provision for the wind pressure should be made according to the prevailing by–laws in the locality where the building to be constructed. Usually, all such by-laws mentioned a wind pressure of  1 KN/m 2 in any horizontal direction for design purposes.


For roofs inclined at an angle greater than 20 degrees with the horizontal, the wind pressure is taken as 1 k N/m 2 acting inwards in a normal direction on the wind wards side and as 0.5 KN/m 2 acting outwards in a normal direction on the leeward side. The stress due to wind pressure in the case of inclined roofs is worked out separately with or without suction.


(vi). The term winds denote almost exclusively the horizontal wind and hence the wind pressure acts horizontally on the exposed vertical surfaces of the walls, Columns, etc., and inclined roof of the structure.


For Structures of various plan shapes other than rectangular plan shapes, it becomes necessary to apply the shape factor to the value of wind pressure (P). Table 1.5 gives the shape factor to be adopted for different plan shapes of the structures.


 Table  1.5







Plan Shape of Structure

Shape Factor with respect to the ratio of height to the base width
0 – 4 4 – 8 Over 8
1 Circular 0.7 .7 0.7
2 Octagonal 0.8 0.9 1.0
3 Square ( wind perpendicular to diagonal ) 0.8 0.9 1.0
4 Square ( wind perpendicular to the face) 1.0 1.15 1.3


So, basically, these are the 3 important Types of Loads on Foundations – Building and Other Structure.


I hope this information can be useful for you guys.


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