Explanation of Structural system of Building – Load bearing Structure, Framed Structure and Composite structures

Structural system of Building/Load bearing Structure, Framed Structure and

Composite structures




Structural system of Building
Structural system of Building


Structure System of building




Building is an assemblage of two or more portion which are inter-connected and compatible. Each Element is essential for the required performance of a building. Building components like walls, floors, roofs, windows and doors are inter-related and compatible with each other.  


The simplest building system consist of only two components, floor and an enclosure.  Floor is a flat horizontal surface on which human activities take places.An enclosure extends over  and around the floor giving shelter to living being from weather.

A load bearing wall is one which rests on the foundation taken deep into the subsoil. It takes superimposed load. i.e the load transmitted from slabs and beams . it transmits the load of the superstructure on the subsoil on which it rests . the entire wall should be taken deep into the ground where the enlarged footings provide enough stability for it . Also stress transmitted  is considerably reduced because of increase in width of footings.

A partition wall is an internal screen wall which rests above the floor level to create a room or enclosure. It may not be anchored deep into the soil and may not take any load of superstructure .


According to structural system there are three types of buildings.


  • Load bearing structure


  • Framed structure


  • Composite structure



Structural system of Building
Structural system of Building ( fig 1.6) Load bearing structure



Structural system of Building
Structural system of Building(fig 1.7) Framed Structure
Structural system of Building
Structural system of Building

(fig 1.8) Composite Structure


1). Load Bearing structure


The system of building comprising of slabs, beams and load bearing walls is known as a load bearing structure. Most of the Residential Buildings are small in size and are up to three story are generally constructed as load bearing structures.


Structural system of Building/Load BearingStructure
Structural system of Building

       (Fig.1.6) Load Bearing Structure


As shown in (Fig.1.6) Generally,loads from the Slab Roofs or Trusses and floors are transmitted through walls to the firm soil below the ground . In load bearing structures walls of the upper floors have less thickness than the walls of lower floors ,so compared to upper floors, the carpet area at lower floors will be less. Such type of structure are most suited for buildings up to three story and where hard, strata of soil is available. Generally for individual Residential bungalow, tenement, low rise flats,temples and rural building load bearing structure system is adopted.


 2). Framed Structure


It is a Structure Comprising of slabs resting on beams which are supported by a network of column.


Structural system of Building/Framed structure
Structural system of Building

                   (fig.1.7) Framed Structure


As shown in (fig.1.7) the live load from the slab is transferred to the cross beams,which in turns transfer it to main beams through rigid joints.Main beams rest over to the columns and load from the beam is transferred to the soil through columns and their footings.


All the walls may or may not be a partition walls as non of them bear any load.All the walls rest on Plinth beams and not provided with any footing or foundations. Generally all multi stories and high rise buildings are constructed as a framed structure.As partition walls can be shifted easily anywhere on the floor,Higher degree of flexibility is available while planning a framed structure.


All the above elements of framed are constructed monotonically. Framed structure is subjected to a variety of external loads like compressive,tensile,torsion or shear along with moment. R.C.C, is the most suitable materials to withstand all these loads.Bricks can withstand only compressive loads,so All framed structures are constructed with R.C.C.


Mostly ,In comparison with Load bearing structures,More carpet area is available and it is almost same for all the floors.


3). Composite Structure


Structural system of Building/Composite scture
Structural system of Building

          fig  1.8) Composite Structures


As shown in (fig – 1.8)


Mostly Buildings constructions are the combination of both load bearing as well as framed structure. Such Structure is called Composite Structure.


In this type of structure external walls are treated as a load bearing walls and all intermediate support are in the form of R.C.C Columns .Composite structures have advantages of both load bearing or  framed structure Composite structures  are preferred for the buildings having large spans such as warehouses, workshops, halls, large factory sheds etc.


So, friends  Structural system of Building/Load bearing Structure, Framed Structure and Composite structures are the three types of building components


I Hope you understand well and this article might be useful for you


Thanks For Great Attention 


Good & Take Care


Happy Learning 😆 


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Structural system of Building/Load bearing Structure, Framed Structure and Composite structures


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