100 Important RCC technical terms for Civil Engineer.
The Responsibility of a Site Engineer at construction site is very big & he perform lots of activities at construction site. All the works at site is carried out according to the guidelines of a site engineer and obviously A site engineer roles at site is great.He Supervise not only site supervisor but also handle all technical site related issue, Quality related issue,proper management of site and prepare day to day reports with proper planning for completion the project.
So, A site Engineer should have enough technical knowledge for the construction activities.Here we have some useful information for Site engineer and Supervisor must know about them which help in faster calculations as well as to Notice problems at the site.
Points to Remember for Civil Site Engineer.
100 general points for the civil engineer to remember to make the construction work easy and hence maintaining the quality of the work, done on the site :
1). Density of Various Construction Materials.
Steel = 7850 kg/Cum.
Cement = 1440 kg/cum.
brick = 1682 kg/cum or 1920 kg/cum.c
sand = 1100 to 1600 kg/cum.
Concrete Block = 1920 kg/m 3.
WATER = 1000 kg/cum.
R.C.C = 2310-2700 kg/m 3 (5% STEEL).
P.C.C = 2400 kg/cum.
WOOD = 1100 kg/cum.
CRUSHED BRICK = 950-1250 kg/cum.
2). De -Shuttering period of different R.C.C Members.
i) The period for columns, walls, vertical form-works – 16-24 hrs.
ii) period for Soffit form work to slabs – 3 days (props to be re fixed after removal).
iii) The period for Soffit to beams props – 7 days (props to re fixed after removal).
iv) Beams spanning up to 4.5 m – 7 days.
v) Beams spanning over 4.5 m – 14 days.
vi) Arches spanning up to 6 m – 14 days.
vii) Arches spanning over 6 m – 21 days.
3). Minimum No. of Cube samples required for different quantity of Concrete.
1 – 5 m 3 = 1 Nos.
6 – 15 m 3 = 2 Nos.
16 – 30 m 3 = 3 Nos.
31 – 50 m 3 = 4 Nos.
Above 50 m 3 = 4 + 1 Nos (addition of each 50 m 3).
4). CONCRETE GRADE.
M 5 = 1:5:10
M 10= 1:3:6
M 15= 1:2:4
M 20= 1:1.5:3
M 25= 1:1:2
M 30 & above grade based on Design Mix.
5). Know about the Slump value of Concrete for Different concrete works.
Slump range in mm
Columns, Retaining walls
Beams & Slabs
Decks of bridge
Huge Mass constructions
6). Curing time of Various R.C.C Members for different types of cement.
Curing time of Various R.C.C Members for different types of cement
11). Free fall of concrete is allowed maximum to 1.50 m.
12). Water absorption of bricks should not be more than 15 %.
13). Water P H value less than 6 should not be used for construction purpose .
14). Compressive strength of Bricks is 3.5 N / mm 2.
15). In soil filling as per IS code, 3 samples should be taken for core cutting test for every 100 m 2.
16). A S T M Abbreviation :American Society for Testing Materials.
17). Grade of Concrete is denoted as Cement: Sand: Aggregate (Ex M 20 Grade : 1:1.5:3)
18). The initial setting time shall not be less than 30 minutes and the final setting time of cement is 10 hours.
19). Dead Load means Self weight of Structure.
20). Sand having moisture content more than 5% should not be used for Concrete mix.
21). D P C means Damp Proof Course. The thickness of D P C should not be less than 2.5 cm.
22). Cube test is carried out for each 30 m 3 usage of concrete.
23). R M C: Ready Mix concrete, The concrete is made at factory and transported to the site, This type of concrete is used where there is a lack of space for mixing the concrete .
24). The height of floor is usually 3 m or 10 ft (If a person asks you whats the height of 12 storied building)?
Ans: 3 m x 12 floors = 36 m).
25). A head mason can work 25-30 m 3 in a day.
26). P C C (Plain Cement Concrete) this type of concrete is used on members only when the tensile forces are not acting on it.
27). The weight of first class clay brick should be 3.85 Kg. and it has a crushing strength of 10.5 MN/m 2.
28). Adding more water in the concrete mix to increase setting time leads to form the Cracks or honeycomb in hardened concrete.
29). Vibration in freshly made concrete is done to remove the air bubbles in concrete mix.
30). Impermeability of concrete: The concrete which resists the the entry of water or moisture into it.
31). The concrete can be lifted to a maximum height of 50 m using Concrete Pumps.
32). The curing Period of R.C.C is 28 days.
33). The minimum sill level height should be 44 inches.
34). M 20 grade of concrete is generally used in the construction of slab.
35). The No. of Bricks required for 1 m 3 of Brick masonry are 550 bricks.
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36). Specific gravity of Cement is 3.16 g/cm 3; Bricks is 2 g/cm 3; Sand is 2.65 g/cm3.
37). Standard Size of Brick is 19 cm x 9 cm x 4 cm or 190 mm or 90 mm x 90 mm.
38). Floor area occupied by 50 kg of Cement bag is 0.3 m 2 and height of 0.18 m.
39). IS 456:2000 is Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete.
40). IS 800:2000 is code of Practice for General steel construction.
41). The slope or Pitch of the stair should be in between 25 degrees to 40 degrees.
42). The rise in stairs is in between 150 mm to 200 mm.
43). Tread in staircase is in between 250 mm to 300 mm.
44). Unit weight of P.C.C is 24 KN/m 3 , R.C.C is 25 KN/m 3, Steel is 7850 Kg/m 3.
45). The volume of 50 kg cement bag is 1.3 Cu ft or 0.0347 m 3.
46). Theodolite least count is 20 Secs whereas Compass Least count is 30 mins.
47). Cement more than 3 months old cannot be used for construction.
48). Electrical conduits shall not run in column.
49). Earth work excavation for basement above 3 m should be stepped form.
50). Any back filling should be compacted 95% of dry density at the optimum moisture content and not more than 200 mm in layer for filling above structure and 300 mm for no structure.
51). Minimum size of column should be 9″ x 9″ x 9″.
52). A set of cube tests shall be carried out for each 30 cum of concrete / each levels of casting / each batch of cement.
53). Water cement ratio for different grades of concrete shall not exceed 0.45 for M 20 and above and 0.50 For M 10 / M 15 .
54). For concrete grades M 20 and above approved admixture shall be used as per mix design requirements.
55). Cement shall be stored in dry places on a raised platform about 200 mm above floor level and 300 mm away from walls. Bags to be stacked not more than 10 bags high in to protected from moisture and contamination.
56). Samples from fresh concrete shall be taken and at least a set of 6 cubes of 150 mm shall be prepared and cured. 3 Cubes in 7 days and 28 days shall be tested for compressive strength. The test results should be submitted to engineer in-charge for approval. If results are unsatisfactory necessary action/rectification/ remedial measures has to be exercised.
57). Water is used for mixing and curing of concrete shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of oils, acids, alkali, salts, sugar and organic materials they may be deleterious to concrete or steel.
58). Bags to be stacked till 10 bags high in a manner that it is protected from moisture and contamination.
59). Fresh concrete samples should be taken and at least a set of 6 cubes of 150 mm shall be prepared and cured. 3 cubes each at 7 days and 28 days shall be tested for comprehensive strength. Test results must be given to engineering for approval. When the results are unsatisfactory necessary rectification measures need to be taken.
60). Set of cube test need to be done for each 30 cum of concrete / each level of casting / each batch of cement.
61). Water that is used for mixing and curing should be clean and free from oils, alkali, salts, sugar and organic materials or other deleterious substances. P H shall be generally between 6 and 8.
62). 1 cubic meter contains 500 bricks.
A Standard size of the 1st class brick is 190 mm x 90 mm x 90 mm.
and mortar joint should be 10 mm thick.
So brick with mortar = 200 x 100 x 100.
Volume of 1st class brick = .19 x .09 X .09 = 0.001539 m 3.
Volume of 1st class brick with motor =0.2 x 0.1 x 0.1 = 0.002 m 3.
No. on bricks per 1 cum = 1/volume of 1st class brick with mortar
= 500 no’s of bricks.
63). STANDARD CONVERSION FACTORS
1 RM = 3.28 R f t.
1 Sq mt = 10.76 S f t.
1 Cum = 35.32 C f t.
INCH = 25.4 MILLIMETRE.
1 sq ft = 0.09 Sq m.
1 Hectare = 2.47 Acres.
1 Cu ft = 0.028 Cum.
1 Feet = 12.00 Inch.
FOOT = 0.3048 METRE.
1 Cum = 1000.00 Litre.
YARD = 0.9144 METRE.
MILE = 1.6093 Km.
ACRE = 0.4047 HECTARE.
1 acre = 43560 sq.ft.
1 acre-100 cent = 4046.724 sq.m.
1 ground = 2400 sq.ft.
1 unit = 100 cu.ft =2.83 cum.
POUND = 0.4536 KILOGRAM.
MILLIMETRE = 0.0394 INCH.
METRE = 3.2808 FOOT.
METRE = 1.0936 YARD
1 Newton = o.101971 kg.
1 KN = 100 Kg.
1 KN = 1000 N.
1 Ton = 1000 Kg = 10 KN = 10,000 N.
1 KG = 9.81 N.
1 mm 2 = 0.01 cm 2.
1 cm 2 = 100 mm 2.
1 mm 2 = 20 N.
100 mm 2 = 2000 N.
1 cm 2 = 2000 N.
2000 N = 203.942 kg.
So, 20 N/ mm 2 = 203.94 kg / cm 2.
1 Cent = 435.60 Sq ft.
Current = 1000 Watts = 1 Unit, 25 Watt *40 Hr = 1 Unit.
64). DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
Compression 38 d.
Tension 47 & 60 d.
Weight = 3.17 – 3.80 Kg.
Water absorption 12 to 15%.
Compressive strength = 36 Kn/cm 2.
230 mm Wall per cubic meter = 460 Bricks + 20 Cft. Sand + 66 Kg Cement.
66). Types of Cement there are
Portland cement, high alumina cement, white cement, sulfate resisting cement.
67). Technical Names of the Curves on Roads
there are four types of road curves: simple, reverse, deviation and compound.
68). Why There are Gaps in the Road on Bridges and in the Track on Railways ?
to allow the metal to expand or contraction with temperature. If these aren’t built into the infrastructure, So, the roads and railways can fail .
69). The Differences Between a Total Station and a Theodolite.
Total station uses a GPS, lasers, and leveling sensors to measure precise elevations and distances to develop point clouds.
Theodolites or auto levels simple can detect the change in elevation between two points, without distance measurements.
70). Maximum diameter of steel in column is 50 mm.
71). Minimum grade of cement concrete in column is m 20 (1 : 1.5 : 3).
72). The maximum quantity of silt in sand shall not exceed 8% by weight and 3 & by volume for natural sand, crushed stone sand or crushed gravel sand.
73). Minimum Diameter of steel in Column is 12 mm.
74). c/c means center to center distance.
75). Full form of D P R ?
Detailed project report.
76). How many mm in 1 soot ?
1 inch = 8 soot.
1 soot = 3.17 mm.
77). What is full form of B H K ?
1 bedroom, 1 hall, 1 kitchen.
78). Name of machine used for compression test.
Universal testing machine.
79). Full form of O P C & P P C.
O P C = Ordinary Portland cement.
P P C = Pozzoloana Portland cement.
80). Why foundation provided ?
In order to safely distribute the load of structure in the soil.
81). Types of Foundation ?
Shallow & Deep foundation.
82). Minimum m 20 Concrete grade is used for R C C.
83). Concrete Test.
Water permeability test.
Water Absorption Test.
84). Stirrups are used in beam to resist shear force.
85). When we need Pile Foundation ?
When soil bearing capacity is less than 24 kn/m 3.
86). Difference between O P C 33, O P C 43 and O P C 53 grade ?
O P C 33 grade cement Minimum Compressive strength 33 kn/mm 2 in 28 days.
O P C 43 grade cement Minimum Compressive strength 43 kn/mm 2 in 28 days.
O P C 53 grade cement Minimum Compressive strength 53 kn/mm 2 in 28 days.
87). Difference Between O P C & P P C Cement ?
O P C Cement
P P C Cement
95% cement clinker & 5 % Gypsum.
75% cement, 5% gypsum and 20 % fly ash.
Gain early strength.
Slower rate of heat of hydration,less cracks reduced shrinkage,better work-ability & Finishing.
Used in Construction of Column, beam,Slabs etc.
Used in Brick masonry, plastering, tiling & water Proofing.
88). Why are Deformation Provided in bars.
i). To Prevent slipping of bars from concrete.
ii). To increase bond strength between steel & concrete.
89). The maximum flakiness index shall be limited to 35%.
90). Angle of steel bars should not be greater than 45 degree.
91). What is Segregation ?
Separation of cement, sand from aggregates in concrete.
92). What is Bleeding ?
Water comes to the surface of concrete.
93). Use of 3-4-5 method ?
It is used to set up Plan & right angle.
94). Minimum diameter of bored cast in Situ pile is 450 mm.
95). Factor used to convert wet volume to dry volume is 1.54.
96). Plinth level must be 60 cm to 80 cm above the natural ground.
97). In Footing Minimum “L” for column main rod is 300 mm.
98). Chairs of minimum 12 mm diameter bars should be used.
99). Minimum diameter of dowel bars should be 12 mm
100). Important IS Codes for Every Site Civil Engineer