Dampness in Building
Dampness in Building :- In our houses or building structure, A term Always Use Dampness which is known by different – different names like Dampness, seepage or walls moisture’s etc . Today Dampness in Building is a very common and critical problem for all of us. Generally, it is a common problem but it has a lot of effects on our buildings structures or houses etc.
So, Today we will see about Dampness in Building in details such as causes and reasons of dampness, effects of dampness and Best and Economical Methods to prevent dampness in our houses.
What is Dampness
The access or penetration of moisture contents inside the building through its walls , floors or root is known as dampness. It is also called wall cancer. Outcome of this dampness leads to untidy of internal walls, health issues due to efflorescence and increases maintenance cost.
Dampness is a presence of moisture in the various parts of a building such as a floor, walls roofs etc. Dampness is formed due to intrusion from outside or condensation within the building. The dampness in the building leads to unpleasant and unhygienic conditions to dwellers. The sufficient care must be taken to prevent such situations.
Effects of Dampness
8 Most Important Effects of Dampness in Building are following :-
1). It may Results Wrapping and softening of paint.
2). It may results wrapping , buckling and routing of timer.
3). It may lead to corrosion of metal, steel reinforcement due to buckling of concrete.
4). It breeds mosquito’s and smell and create unhealthy living conditions for the occupants.
5).Effects on Plaster :- It may results Softening & Crumbling Of Plaster. Due to dampness our walls plaster damage and start peel off from walls.
6). Effects on Floors :- It is highly affected our floors. Due to dampness our floor start wrapping or breaking and also the materials get to start damage which is kept on the ground floor.
7). Effects on Electronics and Fixtures :- Metals gets corrode and damage due to dampness.
8). When the dampness occurs remains long time it may be damage the bricks of walls and decreases the life of bricks which results our bricks walls start damage So,It is affected on our walls.
13 Causes / Reasons of Dampness in Building Structure
1). Due to Ground Water & ground water table
Dampness from Ground water is occurs due to these three actions :-
a). Capillary action
b). Surface tension.
The water below the ground is the primary reason of dampness because all structure or building generally are constructed upon the soil and soil has a water table,so due to water table soil has a moisture content and due to surface tension and capillary action ground water table increase and moisture moves upward direction & hit the foundation. This Results the formation of dampness at the floor level. So it can be easily penetrate into the walls and walls starts absorb the water and to start damage plaster and painting .
2). Due to Rain Water
The rain water can be easily go through different location in the walls and causes dampness with any of the following reasons:-
i). From Roof Top :- If the roof top is not properly covered with water proofing materials water can easily enter to it.
ii). Improper Slopes to Roofs :- If the roof slopes of your flat or building is not proper or improper it results the ponding of water on roofs which results in the dampness.
iii). From Wall Top :- If the top of the walls is not protected with the impervious layers Such as concrete or water proofing components etc. The water can easily enter into it , due to voids present in walls.
iv). From External Walls :- The constant splashing of rain on the external surface of the walls, may also result in the entry of water from face forcefully to the walls. Also improper plastering on external surfaces may also lead to dampness.
v). Improper Fixing Of drain Pipes :- If the drain pipes from roof tops are not properly fixed,water start to pond near the mouth of the drain pipes and causes Dampness.
vi). Improper Construction Joints and Poor quality of construction :- Due to roof joints and masonry bad joints Water collected on our roofs and penetrate through the roofs cracks and damp our walls because of Improper slopes in sunshades, Imperfect walls joints, improper construction joints in roof, Due to capillary action , cracks in parapet walls or in weathering course or in slab ,Due to cracks in sunshade edges.etc. leads to a formation of Dampness in Building.
3). Leakages From Pipes :-
It may be in commercial or residential buildings, There will be a numbers of water pipes, soil pipes etc. constructed in the structure.
These pipes are connected either to circulate the water or to drain off the water. The network of pipes is created by joining a numbers of pipes, bends, etc. Which often leads to leakages of walls. The leakages of water result in the formation of dampness.
PVC Pipe is not a problem But when you use GI pipes then after some times it will start leakages due to corrosion.
4). Level of the site:-
Low laying areas can not be easily drained off causes Dampness in Building structure.
5). Chemicals In water :-
Due to present chemicals In water. It is affected our bricks, plaster, timer, Materials and floors to damage it. Due to this walls shows black spot which is not good.
6). Defective Orientation:-
Constant Splashes of rain water or getting less sun rays due to defective orientation also causes Dampness in Building. It is mostly occurs only in cold places.
7). Proper drainage unavailable :-
If Proper drainage are unavailable Gravel and sandy soil,clay soil retains moisture and also causes Dampness in Building Structure due to capillary action.
8). Moisture entrapped during construction:-
Construction in wet condition, persist moisture or Dampness in Building structure. For a long period after the construction is over due to the use of salty and alkaline water.
9). Climate Conditions :-
Atmosphere under very cold climate by the drop of moisture present on ceiling walls, floors constantly also a reason of dampness in building.
10). Defective Materials:-
Use of defective building materials in construction of building such as porous bricks, stone, etc. caused seepage of moisture and Dampness in Building.
11). Moisture which originates in the building itself:-
Leakage in sewers , down water pipes,etc. in kitchen or bathrooms it will causing Dampness in Building structure.
12). Due to drain Ability of soil.
13). Due to Erosion of tiles joint grout powder at bathroom water penetrate into it causes Dampness in Building.
Best and Economical Methods of Prevention From Dampness before construction :-
For dampness prevention it is very important to care off the building when it is start to be constructed.
1). Provide D P C :-
Provide water Proofing Dampness between structure and ground Soil which provides at plinth Levels.
2). Integral damp Proof :-
At the time of Construction mix some water proofing components in concrete prevent dampness.
3). Surface Treatment :-
In this method some compound like aluminium, potassium, silicate, sulphate, bitumen , wax layer provide on surface to prevent dampness.
4). Guinting :–
In this method 1:3 or 1:4 ratio mortar provide in layer for low permeability.
Cavity walls construction are the best methods to prevent dampness.
Walls / Ceiling dampness causes and Treatment :-
1). Ground Water:-
The 1st main and primary causes of dampness in any building structure is Ground water table and due to capillary action it results in dampness.
i). Provide D P C at plinth level
ii). Provide Plinth beam below D P C.
2). Rain Water :-
2nd Main reasons of dampness in building structure is Rain Water. Because if there is any cracks on the outside walls, the rain water goes into walls through these cracks and increase dampness.
When You do Plaster Add Dr. Fixit water proofing materials in plaster.After that when it is dry properly than follow this method :-
- Take Fitkari and turmind in huge quantity and boil.
- When it is boil properly than left for cooling.
- After that Sprinkle that water in the damp area.
- When it is dry again sprinkling this process and repeat it for 2 to 3 times.
- It will absorb all damp and salt from walls.
3). Pipe Leakages:-
Drain pipes leakages is also a reasons of dampness in bathrooms and kitchen walls. but the main problem is in this type of leakage is to identify the leakage but don’t worry I have a simple solution to identify the pipe leakages.
To check Water pipe leakage follow the steps:-
i). First your roof tank fill half with water.
ii). Now, Put Blue color into the water in tank and make it blue.
iii). Than Open all valves of your House.
iv). Now check carefully all walls ,if there is any presence of blue water shows at any location,it means leakage is at that point.
So, after that you can easily repaired the leakage by plumber.
Important Note :-
Never start dampness treatment in rainy seasons. Summer season is the best seasons for the treatment of dampness .
- Before painting always remember , If your walls showing some cracks .First you have to fill cracks by putty after that you should paint your walls.
Thanks for your Great Attention
Good Bye & Take care
Happy Learning 😆