10 Basic Important Components Of A Building Structure
Usually a building divided into three parts:
1. Foundation :-
It is the part of a building constructed below ground level and which is in direct contact with substrata and transmit all the load to the subsoil.
2. Plinth :-
It is the building above the ground level and up to the floor level immediately above the ground. The built-up area measure at the plinth level is known as plinth area.
3. Superstructure :-
It is the part of a building constructed above the plinth level.
Following are the Parts & Important component of a building Structure :-
(iii). Masonry or R C C walls and column of superstructure
(iv). Basement, ground floor and upper floor
(v). Sills, lintels and weather shades
(vi). Door windows and ventilators
(viii). Stars, lifts, ramp, etc.
(ix). Building finishes like plastering, painting, white washing, flooring, etc.
(x). Utility fixtures
Foundation is also known as substructure of the building it is the most critical parts of a building to the subsoil in which it rest in such a way that settlement of a soil does not fail in shear. Foundation of building should be designed very carefully as most of the failures are probably due to fault design of foundation rather any other cause. Various type of foundations their purpose and design principle are discussed in details in next upcoming articles but It is an Important components of A building Structure.
A part of superstructure located between the ground level and the floor level is known as the plinth. The height of the plinth should not be less than 45 cm. The height of the plinths depends upon the architectural elevation, ground level, highest flood level, etc. Usually coping, plinth beam and damp cores are provided the at the top of the plinth . It is also an Important components of A building Structure.
(3). Masonry And R C C Walls and Column of Superstructure
Walls are used to enclose or divide the floor space load bearing walls should be strong enough to take its own load, superimposed weight and lateral pressure of wind. They should provide stability, weather resistance, fire resistance, heat insulation, privacy and security So, It is an Important components of A building Structure.
(4). Basement, Ground floor and Upper Floors
A floor provide support to the occupants, furniture, fixture and equipment of the buildings. Different floors divide the building into different level to provide more accommodation on a given plot of land. The floor of a building immediately above the ground as known as Ground floor. All other floor above the ground floors is known as Upper Floors. The floor below the ground level is known as basement floor or lower level floor.
Every floor has following two components: –
(a). Sub Floor :-
It is a structural components of a building which imparts strength and stability to support the super imposed loads, durability, damp prevention, heat and sound insulation and fire protection.
(b). Flooring :-
It consist of suitable floor finish which imparts clean, smooth, durable and wear resisting surface.
(5). Sills, lintels and weather sheds
Window sills are provided between the bottom of window frame and above the top of the walls below. The lintel is provided above the openings of windows, doors and ventilators in the walls to support the weight of the wall above the openings, Weather sheds or Chajja are generally combined with lintels to protect doors, Windows or ventilators from sun ,rain, wind frost, etc. So it is also an Important components of A building Structure.
(6). Doors, Windows and Ventilators
Another Important components of A building Structure is Doors and windows.Doors are provide in a building to allow the free movement’s outside and to the internal parts of the building. It is an op-enable barrier secured in an opening left in a wall. It consist of frame and shutter. Window and ventilators are generally provided for proper light, ventilation and vision. There size and numbers should be properly determined as per requirements. When windows are provided for light and ventilation only, they may be fixed so that they can not be open they are known as ventilators.It is an Important components of A building Structure.
Roof is the uppermost part of the building which is constructed in the form of a frame work to give protection to the building against rain, heat, snow, wind, frost, etc.It is an Important components of A building Structure. A roof basically consist of structural elements provided at the top of building for the support of roof coverings. A roof consist of the following two components :-
(a). Roof Decking :-
It is a structural component which support the roof covering it may be flat, sloping, dome shaped, truss. etc.
(b). Roof covering :-
It is provided on the roof deck to protect the building against sun ,rain, wind, frost, etc.
(8). Stairs ,lifts, Ramps
Another Important components of A building Structure is Stairs , lifts ,ramps escalators, etc. are the means of vertical transportation between the floors out of these, a stair is the most common. It is defined as a sequence of steps suitably arranged for the purpose of ascent and decent between the floor or landings. It consist of treads, risers, stringers, newel post, blustered, balustrade, handrail etc. Stair may be constructed of different materials like timber, stone, reinforced, concrete, metal, bricks etc.it may be of different shapes like straight stairs, turning stairs, circular or helical stairs, geometrical stairs etc.
A ramp is sloping surface and it is adopted as a substitute for stair for easy movements between the floors, A slope of 1 in 10 is desirable.
The flooring of ramp should be non-sleeper materials ,It shapes may be straight ,zigzag ,spiral, curve etc.
Escalators are ever moving flights of electrically operated stairs. These escalators are kept in motion by a revolving drum.
(9). Building Finishes like Plastering, Painting, Whitewashing, Flooring
To protect the exposed surface of walls and floors from the effect of atmospheric actions ,building finishes are used which is very Another Important components of A building Structure . They improve the appearance of the structure as a whole and gives smooth surface .They also rectified the defective workmanship or conceal inferior materials.
Plastering, pointing, painting , varnishing, dis-tempering , whitewashing, color washing, flooring etc. are considered as building finishes.
Plastering as a thin plastic covering which is applied on the surface of walls and ceilings , it removes the unevenness of the surfaces and imparts decorative effects .
Pointing is the process of finishing of mortar joints of either stone masonry or brick masonry. The joints are racked out to a depth of about 20 mm and than these spaces are filled up by suitable mortar in the desired shape.
Painting , varnishing and polishing are generally done on doors, windows, cupboards and other exposed wooden and steel components.
White washing , Color washing and dis-tempering are generally done only plastered surface to protect them against weathering effects and to give better appearance .
Flooring is the process of finishing of the upper surface of the floor in order to give a pleasing appearance. The materials like asphalt , brick , concrete , wood , glass, marble stone, terrazzo, tiles , Mu-rum , granite, gran-mite, ceramic tiles, etc. are used as flooring materials.
(10). Utility fixtures
Utility fixtures are built in items in the building. They are immovable in nature. Wooden cupboards made in walls, sleeves, smokeless Chulha etc. are utility fixtures. Generally, they are provided by making recesses involves which make the structure weak. However It is an Important components of A building Structure but in modern construction utility fixtures are avoided.
So, these are the 10 Basic Important Components Of A Building Structure