Basic Functional Requirements of Building

Basic Requirement of Building


 basic requirement of building
basic requirement of building


The design and a performance of a good building should satisfy the following basic requirement of building :-


i). The structure of building should be strong and sound to resist its normal bonding .


ii). It should have sufficient stiffness so that its deterioration does not reduce the efficiency of the structure to its intended purpose.


iii). From the performance point of view, the building should be well planned to give maximum comfort and convenience to the occupant of the building.


 for basic requirement of building , and to achieve the above three basic fundamental building should satisfy the following requirements in its designed and construction :-


(1). Comfort and convenience


(2). Dimensional stability


(3). Durability


(4). Economy


(5).Fire protection


(6). Heat or thermal insulation


(7). Light and ventilation


(8). Moisture and damp prevention


(9). Security against burglary


(10). Sound insulation


(11). Strength and stability


(12). Termite control


We will discuss above point in details:


(1). Comfort and convenience :- 


This is one of the basic requirements of building for  functional planning of a building construction . Following points should be kept in mind to achieve this requirement.


(i). A building should be provided with enough light during day or night without any effect of glare.


(ii). A building should be oriented in such a manner to get maximum benefit of natural air and light.


(iii). Due weight-age should be given to be living, working and health condition of the occupants of the building.


(iv). Grouping of the rooms should be so planned as top ensure better circulation optimum utilization’s of space and maximum efficiency in a building.


(2). Dimensional Stability :- 


basic requirement of building
basic requirement of building


The changing in the dimension of material structures are cause due to the following :- 


(i). Elastic and plastic deformation of creep due to applied load.


(ii). Expansion and Contraction due to temperature variation or moisture content in the atmosphere, which results into cracking of the buildings.


(iii). Chemical Reactions between building materials and moist air.


Following are the measures to prevent the dimensional changes:


(i). The effect of elastic deformation is taken care by considering effective modulus of elasticity in design.


(ii). The effect of plastic deformation is taken into account by considering proper load factor against

Failure in design.


(iii). Avoid using the materials which are deformed due to moisture or temperature changes.


(iv). Provide unnecessary restraint to shrinkage or expansion of the materials.


(v). Try to use the material which have a large extensibility, means less tensile stress than its tensile strength to avoid cracking.


(3). Durability :- 



basic requirement of building
basic requirement of building


Period of time upto which the building remains habitable is called its durability.Durability of a building depends upon following factors :-


(i). Degree of maintenance.


(ii). Method of construction adopted.


(iii). Types of materials used in a building.


(iv). Exposure conditions to weathering which is determined by the climate, environment, site, expect and height of the building.


(v). Effect of frost action on expose building construction  materials.


(vi). Crystallization of salts by ground water movement.


(vii). Surface Erosion by Rain Water.


(viii). Effect of Sunlight-on paints, plastics,glass, asphalt, rubber etc.


Basic requirements of building


To increase and maintain durability , of a building following steps should be taken :-


(i). Proper features like projecting eaves, copying , sunshades, cornices, parapets, sills etc.should be provided in the building to prevent from rainfall, sunlight,moisture and other exposure to weathers.


(ii). Proper care is to be taken in designing a building in maintenance of a building in choice of materials and in the protection of a building against weathering effects this is the basic requirements of building.


(4). Economy :- 


At every stage of functional planning, design , construction , maintenance and operation of building economics expect should be considered simultaneously. The building should be functionally and structurally sound. As well as should not costs much higher than usual .


(5). Important basic requirements of building is Fire protection :-


basic requirement of building


To protect the building of fire, composite and non compostable material should be used in the construction of wall, columns, beams etc. also standards of fire safety or fire extinguisher as specified in the building code should be provided with sufficient and quick fire exit. The chances of fire can be reduce through adequate planning of building in horizontal and vertical directions.


(6).Important basic requirements of building Heat and Thermal Insulation :-


Properly insolation in building cut us down the costs of electric burring in summer as well as in winter. To achieve heat insulation requirement for different type of building, one or more of the following means should be adopted:


(i). Exterior wall should be thicker which imparts strength to the building and also providing insulation against heat and cold.


(ii). Construction of cavity walls as external walls to protect the building from outside heat or cold as the follow space between to wall act as insulating materials.


(iii). In the construction of walls,roofs,floors etc. to fill air spaces in constructions materials , heat insulating materials like slag wool, light weight concrete, rock wool , mats, foamed slag aggregates should be used.


(iv). The building should be provided with chhajjas, canopy,weather shades,verandah, courtyards, trees, gardens etc. to achieve heat insulation.


(v). Top terrace of the building should be insulated against heat economically by using special  flooring method.


(7).  Important basic requirements of building Light and ventilation :-


 In every building position, no. and sizes of doors and windows should be in such a way that sufficient day light should be glare comes from the light direction.Sufficient Daylight should reach in each and every room of the building,to create pleasing environment to work and to live. The designer should also keep in  mind the lighting requirements with heat insulation of the building So, it is also a basic requirements of a building



Ventilation in a building means the free passage of clean air in a building.ventilation is essential in every building because of the following reasons :-


(i). If the room is not properly ventilated , there will be excessive quantity of carbon dioxide in the air.the more amount of carbon dioxide ,the more difficult is the is observed that breathing is difficult when the amount of carbon dioxide by volume is about 6 % and a man losses consciousness when it is reaches about 10 % or so .for comfortable working,the carbon dioxide contents should be limited to about 0.6% by volume.


(ii). The Ventilation is required to control dust and other impurities in the air.This is the main cause of insisting proper ventilation in the industrial building.


(iii). The ventilation is also required to suppress odours, smoke,concentration of bacteria etc.


(iv). The proper ends sufficient ventilation result in absence of condentation.The difference of the temperature between the outside air and the inside air tends to the deposition of moisture on the room surface.This is known as the condensation and it can be effectively controlled by the provision of the suitable ventilation of the room.


(v). For Removal of body heat liberated ot generated by the occupants,the ventilation is necessary.


(vi). In order to prevent the formation of conditions leading to suffocation in conference rooms,committee halls,cinema halls,big rooms etc.The proper ventilation of such premises must be made .


(8). Moisture or Damp Prevention :-


One of the basic requirements of buildings is that the structure should remain dry as far as possible . The presence of moisture in any building deteriorates the strength of materials and results in reduction in durability of failure of the structure.In order prevent the entry of damp into a building,damp proof courses are provided at various levels of entry of damp into a building.


At present , Practically all the building are given the treatments of damp proofing. The provision of damp proof courses prevent the entries of moistures from walls, floors and basement of a building.


The moisture in building is normally due to faulty construction, ppor materials and workmanship.The moistures gets in a building due to water penetration through roofs or external walls which is called water leakage. The water leakage in the building is the most common problems and is concentrated on the terrace roofs and in the toilets.


For more details on this topic please refer the Link of damp proofing,Waterproofing 


(9). Security Against Burglary


For the safety of the buildings ,the external walls should be strong enough .also window openings should be protected with ms grill or concrete jail or by any other important building where high security is required,automatic alarm system are also provided.So, this is also a basic requirements of a building



(10). Most important basic requirements of building is Sound Insulation


It is necessary to give attention to the sound insulation of buildings because of various factors such as increase in population , change in habits of the community increase in noise pollution,improve in building construction practices etc.The function of the sound insulating construction is to reduce the sound passing through it.Generally hard materials are used for sound insulating materials construction.


Following are the means to achieve sound insulation in the building construction :-


(i). Construction of cavity walls ,provision of air tight windows,thick external walls with hard reflecting surface, hollow floors over structural floors,Floors with suspended ceilings etc.Improve sound insulation in the building.


(ii). Construction of inner wall using the non – homogeneous structure, hollow walls insulating materials use of sound absorbent materials like fibre boards,mineral wool,air tight doors etc.Reduce site transmission through wall partition.


(iii). Construction of floors using sound insulating materials ,massive and rigid floors construction,insulated and suspended selling etc.Reduce the sound transmission through floors.


(iv) Using sound insulating materials like cork slabs, bitumen,asbestos,compressed straw slabs, fibre boards, mineral wool etc.


v) To achieve acceptable noise level in a building it should be planned against indoor and outdoor noises laid down by the standard or as per the zoning regulations.



Type Of Building

Acceptable noise level in db


Radio and T.V studios

25 to 30


Auditoriums and music rooms

35 to 40


Small offices, court rooms, libraries

40 to 45



40 to 50



45 to 50


Residential buildings and restaurants

45 to 55


Large public offices, banks and stores

50 to 60


This above table is describe in detail in the next article.


(11).  Strength and Stability :-


The structure should be stable to resist all the loads i.e. dead loads, live loads, and wind loads and all compressive and tensile stresses coming over it. The loads and working stresses should be calculated in accordance with the latest design code of India. The stresses for the materials should be calculated in accordance with the latest code of India. The stresses for the materials should be modified by considering plastic deformations and effects of moisture and thermal changes. To achieve strength  and stability of the building, proper load factor should be applied while designing structure. So, this is also a basic requirements of  building



(12). Termite Control :-


The termites are popularly known as white ants as they are in no way related to the ants . The front pair of the ant is longer than their hinds pair while in termites both the pairs are equal.There are over 2300 species of termites but only about 4 % of termite species are responsible for the damage of the buildings.


The termites live in a colony and they are very fast in eating wood and other cellulosic materials as food . the cellulose forms are their basic nutrients.They also damage household articles like furniture,furnishings,clothing,stationary ,plastic, leather, rubber,etc.

The termites are not only nuisance but they affect structural safety and durability of the building.Once the termites enter the building,it becomes very difficult to get rid of them.However there are some treatments of these termites in a building but these treatments are costly and complicated and should be carried out through expert in the field.So, this is also a basic requirements of building.


So, these are the 12 basic requirements of building construction


Hope articles might be useful for you,




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